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  • Grain Flow Testing and Analysis

    In metallurgy, the grain flow refers to the plastic deformation of crystallites during rolling or forging. During forging, the brittle impurities of the metal are broken and distributed in a granular or chain shape along the main elongation direction of the metal, while the plastic impurities are distributed in a band along the main elongation direction with the metal deformation, so that the metal structure after hot forging has a certain directionality. The grain flow distribution can be optimized according to the improvement of forging process, and a good grain flow can improve the mechanical properties of forgings. Therefore, it is very important to control the reasonable distribution of grain flow and to understand the relationship between stress and mechanical properties of grain flow distribution. As a professional reliability third-party testing organization, T,C&A Lab can perform grain flow testing and analysis according to ISO, ASTM and other standards. Welcome to contact our experts for consultation.

    Project Introduction

    Microscopic characteristics of ingots after plastic deformation: forging grain flow

    • Brittle impurities, broken and distributed in the form of particles or chains along the main elongation direction of the metal.

    • Plastic impurities are distributed in bands along the main elongation direction with metal deformation.

    • The grains are significantly elongated in the same direction.

    Performance characteristics: anisotropy

    • Longitudinal (parallel fiber direction), toughness and plasticity increase.

    • Transversely (perpendicular to fiber direction), the toughness and plasticity decreased, but the shear resistance increased significantly.

    Testing Purpose

    Check whether the metal flow lines are continuously distributed along the outline of the sample, and whether there are some phenomena such as irregular flow, folding, turbulence, crossing flow and so on.

    Testing Method

    Corrosion by specific corrosive solution

    A simple test of grain flow can be carried out by washing the surface of steel with 25% nitric acid or sulfuric acid solution. The surface of the steel is flooded with acid, and once the surface begins to etch, the acid is washed off with pure water. Acids etch the surface, revealing the pattern of grain flow.

    Testing Steps

    Testing Steps

    Standards we test to

    ASTM E381Standard Method of Macroetch Testing Steel Bars, Billets, Blooms, and Forgings
    ISO 4969Steel — Etching Method for Macroscopic Examination

    In addition, the experts in our Grain Flow Testing and Analysis Laboratory also provide a variety of custom tests as your needs and requirements. Let's discuss the custom service with our experts for free.

    Instruments and data

    Grain Flow Testing and Analysis 1
    Grain Flow Testing and Analysis 2


    1. Joun, M. S.; et al. Finite element analysis of a multi-stage axisymmetric forging process having a spring-attached die for controlling metal flow lines. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 38.7 (1998): 843-854.
    2. Łukaszek-Sołek, A. Effect of technical quality of thermomechanical die forging of AA2099 alloy. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 59.3 (2014): 997-1003.

    Note: this service is for Research Use Only and Not intended for clinical use.


    T,C & A LAB is an independent lab providing quality or custom testing, characterization and analysis of a variety of materials. Our engaged experts are ready to help you.

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