Because the non-metallic inclusion destroys the continuity and uniformity of the metal matrix, it is easy to cause stress concentration, cause the decline of mechanical properties, and lead to the early failure of the material. The degree of influence mainly depends on the shape, size, distribution and aggregation state of the inclusion. Therefore, the quantity and distribution of inclusions are important indicators to evaluate the quality of steel. For metallographic analysts, how to correctly judge and identify non-metallic inclusions has become very important. As a professional reliability third-party testing organization, T,C&A Lab can perform inclusion rating analysis and testing on steel according to ISO, ASTM and other standards. Welcome to contact our experts for consultation.
T,C&A Lab's inclusion rating capabilities include:
Oxides: FeO, Fe2O3, MnO, SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, Cu2O, etc.
Sulfides: FeS, MnS, CaS, etc.
Silicates: 2FeOSiO2, 2MnO.SiO2, CaO.SiO2, etc.
Nitrides: TiN, ZrN, VN, etc.
The identification methods of inclusions we provide include:
Combination of metallographic method and micro-area component analysis
After the undetermined inclusions were selected in the metallographic observation, the micro-area composition analysis was carried out with the Electron Probe Micro-analyzer (EPMA) or the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) was used for the composition analysis. It is usually possible to determine the constituent elements and approximate components of inclusions whose size is larger than 1μm, and more intuitive results can be obtained if the surface scanning of individual elements is used.
Optical metallographic method
The color, shape, size and distribution of the inclusion are observed in the bright field of view under the optical microscope, the inherent color and transparency of the inclusion are observed in the dark field, and the various optical properties of the inclusion are observed under the orthogonal polarized light to judge the type of the inclusion. The corresponding grade is evaluated according to the distribution and quantity of inclusions, and its influence on the properties of steel is evaluated.
Quantitative rating of non-metallic inclusions
JK standard rating chart is divided into 4 basic types according to the shape and distribution of inclusions. Type A sulfide type, type B alumina type, type C silicate type and type D spherical oxide type. Each type of inclusions is divided into two series, coarse series and fine series, according to their thickness or diameter. Each series is composed of five grades (grades 1 to 5) pictures showing the increasing content of inclusions. When assessing the grade of inclusions, half-grade assessments are allowed, such as 0.5 and 1.5.
The ASTM standard rating chart is also called the modified JK chart. The classification and series of inclusions in the rating chart are the same as those of the JK standard chart, but the rating chart consists of five grades of 0.5 to 2.5, which is suitable for evaluating inclusions in high purity steel.
Standards we test to
|ASTM E45 - 18a||Standard Test Methods for Determining the Inclusion Content of Steel|
|ASTM E1245||Practice for Determining the Inclusion or Second-Phase Constituent Content of Metals by Automatic Image Analysis|
|ISO 3763||Wrought Steels - Macroscopic Methods for Assessing the Content of Nonmetallic Inclusions|
|ISO 4967||Steel - Determination of Content of Nonmetallic Inclusions - Micrographic Methods Using Standard Diagrams|
In addition, the experts in our Inclusion Rating Laboratory also provide a variety of custom services as your needs and requirements. Let's discuss the custom service with our experts for free.
Instruments and data
- Arreola-Herrera, R.; et al. The effect of non-metallic inclusions on the mechanical properties of 32 CDV 13 steel and their mechanical stress analysis by numerical simulation[J]. Theoretical & Applied Fracture Mechanics, 2018:S0167844217303877.
T,C&A Lab's services include, but are not limited to
Note: this service is for Research Use Only and Not intended for clinical use.
- Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES)
- X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Testing
- X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Testing
- Infrared Spectroscopy Testing
- Ultraviolet Spectrum (UV) Testing
- Mass Spectrometry Testing
- Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Testing
- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Testing
- Elemental Analysis
- Structural Characterization
- Morphology & Size Analysis
- Corrosion Inhibitor Testing
- Crevice Corrosion Testing
- Electrochemical Corrosion Testing
- Galvanic Corrosion Testing
- High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) Corrosion Testing
- Hydrogen Embrittlement Testing
- Intergranular Corrosion (IGC) Testing
- Pitting Corrosion Testing
- Salt Spray Testing
- Sour Service Corrosion Testing
- Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) Testing
- Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC) Testing
- Thermal Analysis
- Mechanical Testing
- Non-Destructive Testing
- Performance Testing
- Pharmaceutical Testing
- Chemical Analysis
- Case Depth Testing and Analysis
- Grain Size Analysis
- Particle Size Distribution Analysis and Testing
- Coating Thickness Testing
- Inclusion Rating
- Ferrite Testing
- Porosity Testing
- Grain Flow Testing and Analysis
- Weld Testing
- X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Analysis
- Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Laboratory
- Harmful Substances Testing
- Reverse Engineering & Deformulation
- Industrial Problem Diagnosis
- Ingredient Analysis