X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
XRD is the abbreviation of X-Ray Diffraction. Through the X-ray diffraction of the material, the diffraction pattern is analyzed, and the information such as the composition of the material and the structure or morphology of atoms or molecules in the material is obtained.
The principle of XRD
When a beam of monochromatic X-rays is incident on a crystal, since the crystal is composed of a unit cell of atoms regularly arranged, the distance between these regularly arranged atoms is the same order of magnitude as the wavelength of the incident X-rays, so the X-rays scattered by different atoms will interact with each other. Interference produces strong X-ray diffraction in some special directions. The orientation and intensity of the diffraction lines in space are closely related to the crystal structure. This is the basic principle of X-ray diffraction.
The main applications of XRD technology: phase qualitative or quantitative analysis of samples, crystal structure analysis, texture analysis of materials, determination of macro or micro stress, determination of crystal grain size, determination of crystallinity, etc.
Routine test analysis items
- Phase identification of polycrystalline powder and bulk samples (qualitative analysis of phases)
- Low-angle and high-angle diffraction analysis of thin films, multilayer films and one-dimensional superlattice materials
- Determination of the grain shape, size, micro strain and stacking fault probability of nano (microcrystalline) materials
Unconventional test analysis items
- Determination of lattice parameters (currently limited to cubic, hexagonal, tetragonal and orthorhombic systems).
- Determination of texture density distribution curve.
- Simple determination of the first kind of stress (uniaxial and biaxial)
Features of our test analysis service
- The analysis results are given for a single sample, and the comprehensive analysis results are also given for a series of samples.
- Separation of double and triple broadening effects of microcrystal, microstress and stacking fault probability.
- Timely test and analysis results, preferential fees.
- X-ray generator 3 kW, CPU control
- Tester 2θ~θ, θ~θ linkage, θ or 2θ independent
- Reproducibility of measuring angle ±0.001° (θ)
- Scanning angle range -6~163° (2θ), -180~180° (θ)
- The test sample can be powder, or block, plate, sheet, filament, or original shape such as a film with a substrate material or a coating with a substrate.
- Powder sample: generally 0.5 g, at least 20 mg (depending on density and diffraction ability), particle size requirement <100 μm (200-400 mesh).
- Bulk sample: it is required to have a plane with an area less than 1.8 cm x 1.8 cm, without stress and texture.
- Film sample: length and width are required to be less than 1.8 cm.
- Case background
- Test parameters
- Test result
The sample submitted for inspection is white pearl powder, and the inspector requires phase identification. The equipment used in this experiment is a Rigaku D/max2500 X-ray diffractometer.
Tube pressure 40 KV, tube flow 200 μA, Cu target, diffraction width DS=SS=1°, RS=0.3 mm, scanning speed 2.000 (d•min-1), scanning range 10°~80°.
The main component of the sample is calcium carbonate.
In conclusion, T,C&A Lab can offer XRD services that can solve materials testing related problem. Finally, please complete the form to have an expert discuss your needs.
Note: this service is for Research Use Only and Not intended for clinical use.
- Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
- Atomic Force Microscope
- Auger Electron Spectroscopy
- Electron Backscatter Diffraction
- Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS)
- Focused Ion Beam (FIB)
- Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
- Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
- Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC)
- Glow Discharge-Mass Spectrometry (GD-MS)
- IGA Gas Adsorption System
- Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
- Ion Chromatography (IC)
- Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) System
- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
- Raman Spectrometer
- Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS)
- Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
- Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS)
- Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC)
- Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS)
- Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence
- X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
- X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)
- X-ray Reflectivity (XRR)