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    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), is a surface chemical analysis technology, which is mainly used to characterize the surface elements and their chemical states of materials. It is an analytical technique with a sampling range from surface to depth of about 50-70Å. It can perform chemical state analysis, depth analysis, and analyze the chemical linkages of various elements on the surface of the material, and it is not limited by the conductivity of the sample.



    XPS is a spectroscopic method that uses high-energy photons in the X-ray range to irradiate the measured samples and measure the photoelectron energy distribution caused by this. Under the action of X-ray, all kinds of orbital electrons may be excited into photoelectrons from atoms. Because the binding energy of various atomic and molecular orbital electrons is certain, it can be used to determine the electronic structure of solid surface and the chemical composition of surface components. In the latter application, it is generally called electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA).



    • The surface of the sample is less damaged by radiation.
    • It can detect all the elements in the periodic table except H and He, and has high absolute sensitivity.
    • Quantitative analysis, including chemical state differences between samples.
    • Suitable for a variety of materials, including insulation samples (such as paper, plastic and glass).
    • Oxide thickness measurement.
    • Surface analysis and research can be carried out under low vacuum, which can not be done by other methods.

    Ideal uses

    • Structural analysis
      • Organic structure analysis.
      • Surface analysis.
      • Analysis of biological macromolecular structure.
      • Analysis of polymer structure.
      • Catalyst surface analysis.
      • Structure analysis of environmental pollutants.
    • Qualitative analysis
      • Identification methods of element composition and chemical state.
      • Identification of accompanying peak.
      • Mixture analysis.

    Applications & industries

    Use this technology to help customers research and develop and develop processes in a variety of applications in different fields:

    • Measure surface composition and chemical state information.
    • Describe the cleaning process.
    • Analyze the main components of powder and chips.
    • Surface analysis of organic materials, inorganic materials, stains, and residues, identify pollution sources.
    • Identify and quantify functional testing of polymers before and after surface changes.
    • Measure the thickness of the lubricant on the hard drive.
    • Obtain thin film (conductive and non-conductive) depth profiles for the horizontal elements of the material body.
    • Thin film oxide thickness measurement, such as SiO2, Al2O3, etc., or estimate the difference in oxide layer thickness between two samples.
    • The detection limit is usually ~ 0.01% and the smallest analysis area is ~10 µm.

    In conclusion, T,C&A Lab can offer XPS/ESCA services that can solve materials testing related problem. Finally, please complete the form to have an expert discuss your needs.


    1. Dahmash, E. Z.; etc. Characterisation and surface-profiling techniques for composite particles produced by dry powder coating in pharmaceutical drug delivery. Drug discovery today 21.4 (2016): 550-561.

    Note: this service is for Research Use Only and Not intended for clinical use.

    T,C & A LAB is an independent lab providing quality or custom testing, characterization and analysis of a variety of materials. Our engaged experts are ready to help you.

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